Pour ceux qui ne connaissent pas forcément la terminologie... "adjunct faculty" n'a pas encore son équivalent en France, que je sache... il s'agit des gens qui sont en CDD, n'ont pas de couverture santé, chomage, ou d'autres avantages. Les PRAG / CRPE ont de la sécurité en raison de leurs concours, et les vacataires en raison de leurs employeurs principaux obligatoires.
Article 1: How the American University was Killed in Five Easy Steps
Article 2: From Ph.D. to Escort: How Debt Can Change Students (Thomas Frank, Harper's editor, noted left-wing crank )
Article 1 a écrit:
Comment l'université américain a été achevé: les cinq étapes (une traduction rapide des titres)
- couper l'argent attribué à l'enseignement supérieur
- déprofessionaliser et appauvrir les professeurs (en continuant d'assurer un offre qui excède largement à la demande)
- embarquer une class d'administrateurs /managers pour gouverner l'université
- faire entre la culture et l'argent des grandes entreprises (notamment pharmaceutiques)
- détruire les élèves (e.g. en augmentant les frais d'inscription de 2000% en 30 ans)
[A] country claiming to have democratic values can’t just shut down its universities. That would reveal something about that country which would not support the image they are determined to portray – that of a country of freedom, justice, opportunity for all. So, how do you kill the universities of the country without showing your hand?
At latest count, we have 1.5 million university professors in this country, 1 million of whom are adjuncts. One million professors in America are hired on short-term contracts, most often for one semester at a time, with no job security whatsoever – which means that they have no idea how much work they will have in any given semester, and that they are often completely unemployed over summer months when work is nearly impossible to find (and many of the unemployed adjuncts do not qualify for unemployment payments). So, one million American university professors are earning, on average, $20K a year gross, with no benefits or healthcare, no unemployment insurance when they are out of work. Keep in mind, too, that many of the more recent Ph.Ds have entered this field often with the burden of six figure student loan debt on their backs.
When I was an undergraduate student in the mid to late 1970s, tuition at Temple University was around $700 a year. Today, tuition is nearly $15,000 a year. Tuitions have increased, using CA as an example again, over 2000% since the 1970s. 2000%! This is the most directly dangerous situation for our students: pulling them into crippling debt that will follow them to the grave.
ndlr: 1 US dollar = 0.7981 euros
Article 2: (extrait de l'article paru en juin 2012 -- http://www.harpers.org/archive/2012/05/hbc-90008623 accès payant pour l'article en entier)
Thomas Frank a écrit:Massive indebtedness changes a person, maybe even more than a college education does, and it’s reasonable to suspect that the politicos who have allowed the tuition disaster to take its course know this. To saddle young people with enormous, inescapable debt—total student debt is now more than one trillion dollars—is ultimately to transform them into profit-maximizing machines. I mean, working as a schoolteacher or an editorial assistant at a publishing house isn’t going to help you chip away at that forty grand you owe. You can’t get out of it by bankruptcy, either. And our political leaders, lost in a fantasy of punitive individualism, certainly won’t propose the bailout measures they could take to rescue the young from the crushing burden.
What will happen to the young debtors instead is that they will become Homo economicus, whether or not they studied that noble creature. David Graeber, the anthropologist who wrote the soon-to-be-classic Debt: The First 5,000 Years, likens the process to a horror movie, in which the zombies or the vampires attack the humans as a kind of recruitment policy. “They turn you into one of them,” as Graeber told me.
Actually, they do worse than that. Graeber relates the story of a woman he met who got a Ph.D. from Columbia University, but whose $80,000 debt load put an academic career off-limits, since adjuncts earn close to nothing. Instead, the woman wound up working as an escort for Wall Street types. “Here’s someone who ought to be a professor,” Graeber explains, “doing sexual services for the guys who lent her the money.”
The story hit home for me, because I, too, wanted to be a professor once. I remember the waves of enlightenment that washed over me in my first few years in college, the ecstasy of finally beginning to understand what moved human affairs this way or that, the exciting sense of a generation arriving at a shared sensibility. Oh, I might have gone on doing that kind of work forever, whether or not it made me rich, if journalism had not intervened.
It’s hard to find that kind of ecstasy among the current crop of college graduates. The sensibility shared by their generation seems to revolve around student debt, which has been clamped onto them like some sort of interest-bearing iron maiden. They’ve been screwed—that’s what their moment of enlightenment has taught them.
Dernière édition par xphrog le Jeu 23 Aoû 2012 - 1:50, édité 2 fois
- Grand sage
Sinon, concernant la précarité des adjunts professors, comme je vous disais plus haut, ce système existe déjà en France dans la plupart des institutions privées d´enseignement supérieur, mais, heureusement, pas encore à l´université.
- Habitué du forum
@alberto79 a écrit:Sinon, concernant la précarité des adjuncts professors, comme je vous disais plus haut, ce système existe déjà en France dans la plupart des institutions privées d´enseignement supérieur, mais, heureusement, pas encore à l´université.
Merci pour l'info, Alberto79, je n'avais pas pensé au privé...
(au moins il y a une couverture sociale (santé, chomage)...)
Encore un article, qui parle un peu plus des maisons d'éditions...
Sarah Kendzior, "The Closing of American Academia"
- Grand sage